By Keith Barry, December 16, 2013
Another report has come out in support of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), an innovative way to provide public transit at a low cost with dedicated bus lanes, stops, and schedules.
The study (PDF), from pro-transit group Embarq, found that BRT drastically reduced commute times, improved air quality, and cut road fatalities in congested cities like Bogota, Istanbul, Johannesburg, and Mexico City. And we already know that BRT is one of the most cost-effective public transit investments a municipality can make.
The catch? In most cities examined in the report, those benefits only extend to low- and middle-class residents. (In Johannesburg, the poorest residents did not use BRT).
“Since the dominant benefit is travel time savings,” the study’s authors wrote, “the majority of benefits tend to accrue to the strata most represented by BRT users — typically lower- and middle-income.”
While it’s great to have a system that improves transportation access for the majority of a city’s population, BRT’s mass appeal could — ironically — be a political concern that prevents its adoption, at least in the U.S. As Alex Pareene wrote in Salon, public transit often suffers because politicians and donors rarely rely on it. The results show in the states, whose existing BRT systems lag behind those in cities around the world.
Even in densely populated and traditionally liberal cities like New York and Minneapolis, politicians neglect transit. And “because they don’t know or interact with or receive checks from people who rely on it every day, there’s almost no hope for cheap, efficient mass transit options anywhere,” Pareene wrote.
Indeed, the Embarq report echoes the public transit wealth gap, and cites that most BRT systems are often paid for by tax revenue collected from those who may never ride it. Bogota’s famed TransMilenio was financed by increased gasoline taxes, and all the systems required both substantial investment and support from municipalities.
But the Embarq report also showed that BRTs benefited cities with environmental and productivity gains more than they strained financial resources. For example, the average commuter in Istanbul now gets to and from work about an hour faster thanks to the Metrobüs, and Mexico City’s BRT system reduced air pollution enough to save 6,000 sick days a year.
As cities continue to grow and congestion increases, the benefits of BRT may become impossible to ignore — even to the rich and powerful folks who are stuck in traffic.
How bus rapid transit is cleaning the air and saving commute time in Mexico City and Istanbul
By Kaid Benfield, December 11, 2013bus rapid transit systems in Mexico City and Istanbul. The video illustrates some of the findings in the organization’s detailed recent report, Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts of BRT Systems.
BRT can be particularly useful in developing countries because it can bring (or extend) many of the benefits of rail transit systems – speed, predictability, priority, comfort – while requiring considerably less capital investment. The key to success is assigning dedicated travel lanes to the BRT vehicles so they avoid congestion, and committing to modern stations at appropriate intervals with streamlined fare collection and boarding (see photo at top).
Nine hundred thousand passengers per day ride the Mexico City BRT, which supplements the city’s Metro rail system. EMBARQ says BRT has reduced accidents and air emissions, including reductions of 690 tons of nitrogen oxide, 2.8 tons of fine particulate matter, 144 tons of hydrocarbons and 80,000 tons of carbon dioxide annually, compared to previous levels. BRT has also improved mobility on bus routes by 50 percent, reduced accidents by 30 percent and shifted an estimated 6 percent of travelers from private vehicles to public transport, says the group’s report.
In Istanbul, EMBARQ says that the average passenger on Metrobüs saves 28 workdays per year in reduced travel times compared to alternative forms of transport; the line uses dedicated space in the median of the city’s D100 freeway and operates at near-highway speeds. Bridging Asia and Europe, Istanbul’s system is the first BRT in the world to provide intercontinental service. The system serves 600,000 passengers daily.
Here’s the video. Enjoy: