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Monday, April 7, 2014

Diesel ‘deadlier than petrol’


By Seibik Bugri, April 6, 2014

A hydrogen fuel cell Taxi Defra’s report says the nitrogen dioxide emissions generated by the typical diesel vehicle, such as a London black taxi, have risen steadily over the past 10-15 years

YEARS of official efforts to encourage motorists to switch to diesel cars have backfired spectacularly, according to new evidence from government scientists. They have found that the engines are responsible for most of the pollution that is causing 29,000 premature deaths a year in Britain and which has left the country facing legal action by the European Commission.

The scientists have told ministers in a report that the only solution is a wholesale move back to petrol vehicles.

The report, commissioned by Defra, the environment ministry, says the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions generated by the typical diesel vehicle have risen steadily over the past 10-15 years and there is no prospect of reversing the trend. There are also serious problems with diesel particulates, the tiny toxic particles that pass through the lungs to enter every organ of the body. Both pollutants raise the risk of heart attacks, strokes and asthma attacks, the actual causes of mortality in most the 29,000 premature deaths.

Separate research into the long-term impacts show that children exposed to diesel particulates have an elevated risk of developing autism and schizophrenia, while older adults may experience accelerated cognitive decline and depression. The Defra report, from scientists on the government’s air quality expert group, tells ministers that cleaning up diesels would take so long that it would be better to promote a wholesale switch to petrol.

“What we are seeing is a complete failure of the emissions regulatory system,” said David Carslaw, of King’s College London, a co-author.

“The policy on cutting pollution over the past two decades has been based on the idea that technological improvements could cut the emissions produced by diesel vehicles — but this has not happened. Nitrogen dioxide emissions per vehicle have actually risen.

“The key failure is that the European testing regime is too lenient and does not measure how vehicles perform when driven on real roads. They all pass the test but our research shows that when driven on real roads they typically emit 4-5 times more than the tests suggest.

“It might be possible to fix this but it would take many years so, for now, the reality is that switching to petrol is the best idea for light vehicles like cars, vans and taxis.” Such a move would have huge policy implications because about a third of Britain’s 29m private cars are diesel powered, as are about 95% of its 3.3m vans. The proportion is also rising — in 2012 about half of the 2m new cars registered were diesel. In London, Birmingham, Manchester and many other cities diesel engines also power almost all the taxis and buses.

The new report is the third to recommend getting rid of diesels. The first two ended up in Defra’s archives with no action taken. In the first report, in 2011, Carslaw and his colleagues said: “We found that in diesel cars and light goods vehicles emissions of nitrogen dioxide have not decreased for the past 15–20 years.”

For their second study in 2012 they used smog sensing camera traps, in which beams of infrared and ultraviolet light were shone across a busy road to analyze the exhaust plume of passing vehicles, simultaneously photographing their number plates, to measure emissions.

The system showed that NO2 emissions for almost every type of diesel vehicle were several times higher than implied by the European Union test results. The latest study uses the same technology to look at buses and other large vehicles and is expected to draw similarly powerful conclusions.
The scale of the failure is illustrated by recent pollution levels in Oxford Street, central London, one of the capital’s most popular shopping and tourist areas.

The EU limit for nitrogen dioxide is 40 micrograms per cubic metre of air averaged over a year. In Oxford Street it seldom fell below this and sometimes went far above — briefly reaching 800mcg on one occasion last August and often exceding 400mcg. Last year it was above 200mcg for 1,500 hours; 18 hours is the maximum allowed for that level.

Carslaw said: “That is the highest long-term concentration anywhere in Europe and could make it the most polluted place in the world, above even Mexico City or Beijing. ”

Ian Mudway, a respiratory toxicologist at Kings College London, who recently coauthored a World Health Organisation (WHO) report on European air pollution, said: “This is not just about vulnerable groups like asthmatics and people with heart conditions.

“In the long term everyone will have subclinical effects that shorten their lives. We have no choice what we breathe and if you are exposed throughout the year then there is a risk of long-term damage to your lungs and other organs.” The new warnings follow a week in which Britain has been covered by a layer of smog caused by dust blown north from the Sahara mixed with diesel particulates and other pollutants, some blown in from Europe, but much of it generated by domestic traffic.

The severe air pollution saw a surge in 999 calls from people suffering asthma, heart attacks and strokes — all of which increase when pollution rises. But the new research suggests the danger comes not just from peaks in pollution but also from long-term exposure, especially to the young. Britain has some of the highest levels of such pollutants in Europe.

There is also strong emerging evidence that diesel emissions, especially particulates, can damage the brains of children living near busy roads, altering the way they develop and raising the risk of developing schizophrenia, autism and other diseases.

Scientists in America have found that long-term exposure to the tiny particulates alters the way children’s brains grow, potentially altering their thought processes and behaviour all through life.

Some scientists have likened the impact of diesel particulates to those emitted by lead in petrol. This was banned in 1999 after scientists found that the lead additives caused brain damage in exposed children — reducing their IQ and increasing their propensity to violent and criminal behaviour. The emerging threat from particulates is summed up in a report on European air pollution by the WHO. It said: “Emerging evidence suggests possible links between long-term PM2.5 exposure [of particles less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter] and neurodevelopment and cognitive function … including impairment of cognitive functions in adults and children.”

Mudway said: “This is an emerging field of study but there is already strong evidence for diesel pollutants having an effect on cognitive function in kids. “Some of that research came from California, where the proportion of diesel vehicles is low. We plan to carry out a similar study in London, where it is far higher, so we expect stronger effects.”

The California research was reported last year in The Journal of the American Medical Association and involved a study of 525 children, of whom 279 had autism. It found that the pollution levels experienced by their mothers in pregnancy and by the children in their first year of life were strongly correlated with the risk of developing autism. It concluded: “Exposures to traffic-related air pollution, PM and nitrogen dioxide were associated with an increased risk of autism.”

Another study led by Jennifer Weuve, professor of internal medicine at Rush Medical College in Chicago, was based on data from 19,000 women. It found that older women who had been exposed to high levels of particulates experienced greater cognitive decline compared with other women their age.
A stu
dy by Melinda Power of the Harvard School of Public Health found the same effect in older men, with those exposed to high levels of particulates suffering reduced cognitive performance, equivalent to ageing by about two years.

Deborah Cory-Slechta, professor of environmental medicine at the University of Rochester medical centre in New York, said: “Evidence is growing … that air pollution targets the brain. Several epidemiological studies report associations of air pollution with autism, two report associations with schizophrenia. Several others have reported cognitive deficits and even increased attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.”

Cory-Slechth has also used animals to try to work out how particulates affect the brain. She found that when mice were exposed to the smallest of particles soon after birth their brains developed enlarged ventricles (cavities) and the animals had problems with learning and memory.

Michelle Block, professor of neurobiology at Virginia Commonwealth University medical centre, in Richmond, Virginia, has looked even deeper, studying microglia, the brain’s immune defence cells, to see how they are affected: “We found that these cells can become reprogrammed, hijacked by air pollution, so they aberrantly cause central nervous system damage.”

Although much of the latest research is American, the United States has far less to be worried about than Britain because diesel is used mainly in buses and goods vehicles, with most US cars and light vehicles powered by petrol. Europe, by contrast, has increasingly switched to diesel in the mistaken belief that it is cleaner and greener.

In Britain in 2012 half of the 2m or so new cars bought were diesel, compared with just 18% 11 years previously. Of the 3.3m registered vans, 95% were diesel. The number of diesel vehicles is the key reason why Britain is experiencing so many pollution problems. Last week’s pollution cloud gained national attention because it was the first to be publicised under the Met Office’s new pollution prediction system, but little mention was made of two peaks that preceded it last month. Mudway said: “Neither the government nor the mayor of London said anything about those previous episodes even though people with asthma, heart disease or other conditions would have benefited from knowing.”

Alan Andrews, a lawyer with ClientEarth, an environmental law firm, is taking action against the government to force it to comply with EU legislation. He said: “The UK will breach the directive in 16 parts of the country up to 2020 and in London up to 2025.” A government spokesman said: “No one type of transport is the sole cause of air pollution and there is no single magic bullet to tackle it.

“To improve air quality we must take the full range of actions including increasing the uptake of cycling, supporting the market for ultra-low emission vehicles and helping to buy low-carbon buses. Since 2011 we have committed £2bn to reduce emissions and improve air quality around busy roads.”