To consolidate, disseminate, and gather information concerning the 710 expansion into our San Rafael neighborhood and into our surrounding neighborhoods. If you have an item that you would like posted on this blog, please e-mail the item to Peggy Drouet at pdrouet@earthlink.net

Thursday, November 13, 2014

Metro will study adding more pay lanes to Southern California freeways


Roundup of today’s meeting of the Metro Board of Directors


By Steve Hymon, November 13, 2014

Processed with VSCOcam with x3 preset

Among the actions taken today by the Metro Board of Directors at their final meeting of 2014:

•The Board approved going forward with a technical study of two light rail alternatives for the Eastside Gold Line Transit Corridor Phase 2 study. One alternative would extend the line to South El Monte, mostly along the 60 freeway, and the other alternative would extend the line to Whittier but eliminate the Garfield Avenue section of the route (the technical study will seek to find a different route). Please see this earlier Source post for more about the project. The technical study will precede the start of the final environmental study for the project.

A motion by Board Members Diane DuBois and Don Knabe asked staff to study potential connections with the West Santa Ana Branch Corridor project, which seeks to build a transit project between downtown L.A. and Santa Ana via an old streetcar right-of-way.

•The Board approved a $44.4-million contract with the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department to patrol Metro trains, buses and facilities for the first six months of 2015. The extension provides Metro staff with the time needed to complete the procurement process for a new policing contract, according to the Metro staff report.

•The Board approved a request by Metro staff to begin the process of requiring 64 new vehicles for use on the Red and Purple Line subway. Earlier Source post with Metro staff report

•The Board approved a motion asking Metro to launch a study of potential new ExpressLanes corridors on Los Angeles County freeways. The Board last summer had also asked for a study of expanding the ExpressLanes to the 105 freeway between the 605 and the 405. Earlier Source post with Board motion

•The Board postponed three items on the agenda — 13, 14 and 15 — on potential new transit-oriented developments on the Eastside Gold Line, one at Mariachi Plaza and two near the Soto Station. In both the Board’s Planning Committee last week and at today’s meeting, many community members expressed concerns about the size, scale and affordability of residences in the projects. The items were postponed in order to do more community outreach, said Board Member Gloria Molina.

•The Board approved a motion by Board Members Eric Garcetti, Mark Ridley-Thomas, Jackie Dupont-Walker and Mike Bonin that would require 30 percent of the units to be affordable housing at future Metro joint developments. Thus far, about 25 percent of the 550 residential units jointly developed by Metro qualify as affordable housing. Garcetti told the Board that the increase would help residents of Los Angeles County who are struggling with soaring housing prices that could still rise higher due to the area’s improving economy. Motion

Smart Branding Attracts the Masses to Mass Transit

Agencies Devote Increasing Attention to Design,
Marketing Strategies to Lure Riders from their Cars 


By Josh Stephens, Fall 2014

This year, the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (Metro) decided that a ribbon-cutting alone would not suffice. The agency announced the opening of the first phase of its long-awaited Silver Line—a heavy rail extension through the suburbs and edge cities of northern Virginia—with a singular video. In it, suburbanites are roused from their homes by an irresistible groove. They dance, in an awkward flash mob, across their lawns, down the street, up a set of stairs and right into a waiting train. Once seated, goofy smiles and toe-tapping persist.

Metro’s tagline: “Good times are ahead.”

Excited riders dance their way on to the Washington, D.C., Metro’s
Silver Line in a still frame from a recent commercial.

The distance from the District to Reston is nothing compared with the distance that transit agencies have traveled of late to enhance their appeal to customers. For the majority of the history of public transit, agencies have followed the lead of William Mulholland, who built the Los Angeles aqueduct. Upon opening the gates in 1913, he told the people of Los Angeles, “There it is. Take it.”

Of course, no one needs to be convinced to use water. Public transit, though, struggled throughout the second half of the 20th century. Ridership plunged with widespread adoption of the automobile. Nationwide, ridership had been in steady decline since the 1950s. But 2013’s 10.7 billion boardings matched a number that hadn’t been seen since 1956, although the country’s population then was 60 percent of its current size. 

Today, transit agencies are abandoning the passive approach to ridership. A confluence of design technologies, communication technologies, new trends in urban development and—perhaps most importantly—a cultural shift among young, smartphone-wielding city-dwellers has led to a new, more sanguine approach to the promotion of transit.

The notion of “branding”—which often encompasses or is accompanied by marketing, advertising, and communications (both internal and external) is famously vague. In the “Mad Men” era, features like packaging and slogans were used to differentiate between otherwise identical products, such as laundry detergent. Identifying the type of customer who would purchase Tide over Cheer was at least as important as describing the products themselves.

In transit terms, branding covers a wildly diverse array of components. It includes everything from the name and logo of the agency itself to signage, documents, electronic media, rolling stock, livery, drivers’ uniforms, and, of course, advertisements.

“I like to look at the brand as any touch point a customer has with anything that you have your brand name on,” said Bob Virkelyst, supervisor of marketing and service information at King County Metro, of Seattle. “That is indeed what you’re branding, whether it’s visual, audible or tactile.”

L.A. Makes Transportation ‘Cool’
Metro Rapid bus
LA metro promo

Images courtesy of Metro. ©2014 LACMTA
Top, Los Angeles Metro’s move to wrap its Rapid
line buses in deep red helped distinguish them
from local buses. Above, a series of Metro ads
associates driving with negative words and transit
with positive words. 

The revolution in transit branding began, ironically, in Los Angeles. With each mile of freeway that was constructed from the 1950s onward, the Southern California Rapid Transit District sunk deeper into irrelevance. The agency was eventually reborn as the Los Angeles Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Metro hired Michael Lejeune in 2003 as its creative director—the first such position in the country. His charge: to wipe away all memory of RTD.

“I have one motto to myself: constantly trying to make Metro cool,” said Lejeune. “In a place like Los Angeles, if you don’t make transportation cool in some way [it won’t work].”

“I think that’s a mantra that any agency can use,” said Lejeune. “It’s particularly important here because we are the car capital and the influence of entertainment and technology. We have pretty stiff competition.”

Lejeune and his team scored a string of early victories. Graphics were updated on every bus, website, and piece of paper. For the first time, the agency invested heavily in advertisements, mainly handsome billboards with bright colors, clean graphics, and provocative catch phrases—such as “Problem” and “Solution” paired, respectively, with images of a gas pump and the Metro logo—designed to get Angelenos to change their minds about public transit. In 2005, Metro rolled out its then-revolutionary Rapid Buses in an equally revolutionary deep red design to instantly distinguish them from local buses.

“We give people interesting words and images together to think about,” said Lejeune. “It’s not that sort of bloodless transportation talk that I think a lot of agencies can fall into.”

Lejeune acknowledged that it’s almost impossible to quantify the amount of increased ridership—if any—that can be attributed to Metro’s branding efforts. And yet, he is convinced that it’s crucial. He said that the ultimate payoff was the 2008 passage of Measure R, a $30 billion funding program that had to meet California’s brutal two-thirds approval threshold for new local taxes. It passed with 67 percent of the vote. Lejeune calls that vote “our ultimate test of brand loyalty.”

Persuading New Riders

 Metro remains the nation’s most comprehensive in-house design studio. But the principles that its studio embodies are catching on.

Connect Transit of Bloomington- Normal, Illinois, recently rebranded itself, starting with its logo. The change took some community members by surprise.

“The old [logo]…was just tired. It was a white or navy blue picture of a bus driver,” said Jennifer Sorenson, media relations manager for Connect Transit. “I’ve had different people around town come up and say, ‘I didn’t know Connect Transit was here…did we get a new bus company?’ No, we just rebranded.”

From the standpoint of corporate culture, getting transit agencies to embrace innovative marketing techniques entails a serious shift of gears. For most of their history, transit agencies have focused on service and on the maddeningly complex tasks of routing, scheduling, and deployment. Managers at many transit agencies have, historically, cared more about whether buses arrive at their stops on time than about how many people get on.

“What the transit agency is rewarded for doing every day is such a fundamentally conservative thing. You’re doing the same thing over and over,” said Jarrett Walker, a transportation consultant and author of “Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking about Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Out Lives.”

Walker said that the clear conveyance of information, be it route diagrams or timetables, is crucial. “Transparent information,” he said, “is the best marketing.” Many agencies, however, stop there.
 “I still see most agencies coming up with this idea of public transportation: show the bus, show the train, show people what the route is, and people will flock to it,” said LeJeune. 

Today, the people whom transit marketers hope will get on are young professionals in their 20s and 30s known as millennials. They, many experts say, offer the best hope for transit to gain market share over the automobile.

“It’s certainly not business as usual,” said LeJeune. “That 18-35 group is particularly—and this backed up by lots of data—open to the idea of public transportation.”

Even so, it’s a demographic that has more commuting options than ever before, including the option not to commute at all. For them, the benefits of public transit must be made readily apparent.

“You can’t brow-beat people into taking transit,” said Darrin Nordhal, author of “Making Transit Fun!: How to Entice Motorists from Their Cars (and onto their feet, a bike, or bus).” Rather than appeal to the public’s sense of altruism, agencies must, he said, appeal to their sense of hedonism: “Take it because it’ll be fun. It can add joy to your life and give you time for other things that you find delightful.”

Thinking Like For-Profits

Discretionary riders—unlike those who, by virtue of poverty or disability, are transit-dependent—are the ones who can make a transit agency truly successful, by removing would-be drivers from the road and reaping the marginal benefits of less congestion and pollution. Of course, “success” is hard to define for a business that serves the public and does not live or die by a bottom line. That’s not to say, though, that transit agencies can’t give marketing the same primacy that for-profit businesses do.

“The design, signage, branding, livery can’t be an afterthought,” said Aileen Carrigan, a transportation planner and co-author of the nonprofit transit advocacy group EMBARQ’s report “From Here to There: Marketing and Branding Public Transit.” She said this is especially true for new services, such as bus rapid transit. “These decisions need to be integrated into the planning and engineering process.”

Proponents of new branding efforts warn that good branding must be an integral part of an agency’s business strategy, and that agencies must be willing to pay good money for it, even if the benefits are not directly measurable. Lejeune said that when he arrived at Metro, he convinced the agency to increase its advertising annual budget from $800,000 to $3 million.

“Whether you’re running a bus or trying to sell crackers…[marketing is] always going to be one of your biggest overhead expenses,” Nordhal said.

And, like any business, transit agencies can benefit from advertising. They can also benefit from not advertising for their competition.

“The good news with public transport is that they have real estate, they have space,” said Benoit Colin, spokesperson for EMBARQ. “The irony is that they often sell space to car companies. What other industry is selling space to their direct competitor?”

This irony is indicative of just how far many transit agencies have to go as they develop branding campaigns. Every agency, branding experts say, must undergo its own process of not only self-reflection but also of understanding the region and people that they serve. A good branding campaign can run as deep as identifying the “core values” of an agency, a task far more subtle than devising timetables.

Marketing Treated as Early Step in Process

The best marketing strategies are often those that are designed in tandem with the services to which they refer. The advertising materials should not come after the timetables. In many cases, the need to create excitement and disseminate information, to both the public and the press, can take precedence over hard-core planning elements.

That approach is working at L.A. Metro, according to Lejeune. “We now find that operations calls us,” he said. “Planning brings us in early on in any big process.”

Agencies just have to be careful. Walker highlighted the newly designed bus shelters for the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, praising them for being both distinctive and easily replicable. They are in ironic contrast with new shelters in Santa Monica, California, that have been derided as insubstantial; they were designed by an architecture firm with no particular expertise in transit.

“When architects and urban designers approach transit, they’re often approaching it from the outside, not from the perspective of really understanding what transit has to do,” Walker said.

No matter how many smiling faces board the Silver Line or sit under San Francisco’s shelters, American public transit still has a long way to go before it surpasses its all-time high of 23.4 million boardings in 1947. That may seem like a tall order. Then again, the transit promoters of 1947 didn’t have smartphones and viral videos to help them do their job.

Chart: Population and Employment at Each LA Metro Station (Ranked)


By Shane Phillips, November 12, 2014

While performing some demographic research we came up with some estimates of population and employment within 1/2-mile of Metro rail and BRT (Orange Line) stations, and we thought it’d be fun to share with the community.

The first chart shows populations and employment near each station, with stations grouped by Metro line (Expo, Gold, Red, Blue, etc.). We spotted a few interesting facts right off the bat:
  • The Red and Purple Lines have far higher population and employment density than most other stations;
  • the population/employment densities at the Orange Line are comparable to those of the Green Line, perhaps even higher;
  • while the Gold and Blue Line stations both have comparable population densities, employment density seems to be considerably higher for the Gold Line;
  • unsurprisingly, Downtown stations stand out for their high employment densities; and
  • two Green Line stations, Mariposa and El Segundo, appear to have fewer than 100 residents within a half-mile.
Here’s the first chart, and feel free to comment if you see any of your own interesting revelations in the data:


  And for those interested, here’s another version, with the stations ranked by population density:


 Note about methodology: This data was collected using Esri Business Analyst, taking 2014 data at the census tract level and adding the share of each census tract that falls within the half-mile radius of a transit station. For example, a census tract with a population of 5,000 residents that had 50% of its total area within the half-mile radius of a station would contribute 2,500 residents to the total for that station. If there were four census tracts that each had half of their area within the half-mile radius, the total estimated population within the station area would be 10,000. Densities within census tracts vary, of course, so this isn’t a perfect estimate, but we believe that it’s a relatively close approximation.

Study Links Walkable Neighborhoods to Prevention of Cognitive Decline


By Angie Schmitt, November 12, 2014

Photo: AARP

Older adults who live in walkable neighborhoods stay in better shape, physically and mentally, than those who live in car-dependent areas, according to a new study.

In a study presented last weekend to the Gerontological Society of America, University of Kansas assistant professor Amber Watts examined 26 subjects with mild Alzheimer’s Disease and 30 healthy control subjects. She tracked health outcomes over two years, controlling for home price, income, gender, and education.

Watts found that subjects living in walkable neighborhoods, from both groups, had lower body mass index, healthier metabolisms, and better memory and cognition. This was particularly true in neighborhoods that had complicated paths to destinations, she found.

“There seems to be a component of a person’s mental representation of the spatial environment, for example, the ability to picture the streets like a mental map,” Watts said in a press release. “Complex environments may require more complex mental processes to navigate. Our findings suggest that people with neighborhoods that require more mental complexity actually experience less decline in their mental functioning over time.”

Older adults are less likely to get regular exercise than the general population, but walking is one form of activity that is considered safe and healthy for people with Alzheimer’s. Neighborhood attributes like good sidewalks, generous crossing time at intersections, benches, and closely spaced parks and destinations can help encourage older people to walk for transportation, Watts said.

Lawmakers Could Finally Equalize Benefits for Transit and Parking This Year


By Tanya Snyder, November 12, 2014

It’s time to rev up the annual fight over parity between federal transit and parking benefits for commuters. Members of Congress hope this might finally be the year to get it done.

This could be the year to equalize benefits for transit riders and make it permanent. Photo: ##http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RTD_Bus_%26_Light_Rail#mediaviewer/File:Denver_light_rail_train_at_16th-California_station.jpg##Wikipedia##
This could be the year to equalize benefits for transit riders and make it permanent.

This morning, Reps. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) and Jim McGovern (D-MA) announced that they will, again, push to equalize the tax benefits available to transit commuters and car commuters.

Right now, people who drive to work can get up to $250 a month in tax-free earnings to pay for parking. The monthly tax-free income available to the 3 million Americans who use the transit benefit, meanwhile, is capped at $130.

With the passage of the 2009 stimulus law, parity was implemented between the parking benefit and transit benefit for a brief while. After extending the higher transit benefit a few times, however, in recent years Congress has failed to take the necessary action to do so.

At today’s press conference, Washington Metro Board Chair Tom Downs noted that Metro ridership had stagnated since transit benefits dropped. “If you’re providing a $1,500-a-year incentive to drive your car over taking transit, you’re probably going to have an impact on mode choice,” Downs said.

Increasing the transit benefit makes the law more fair, but it probably won’t make a big impact on how people get to work. Studies show that providing parking benefits always increases solo driving rates, whether or not the workplace also offers transit perks. Better to do away with all commuter benefits than to provide both [PDF]. Besides, most transit commutes cost far less than $235 a month.

A monthly New York subway pass costs $112. In DC, you’d have to travel from one end of the system to the other every day during peak hours to make use of the full $235 transit benefit Blumenauer proposes.

Though Blumenauer’s plan only cuts the parking benefit by $15, it’s deficit neutral (at worst), since so many more people drive than use transit.

“We’ve watched the system on automatic pilot start to tilt further in favor of people who drive while it cuts the benefit in half for people who take transit,” Blumenauer said. “And frankly, we’re in a situation where the auto user actually is seeing dramatic reductions in their costs because gas prices have dropped 73 cents since their peak earlier this year. But transit is taking the hit.”

In previous years, Blumenauer has included a bicycle benefit as part of similar bills, but this year he’s trying to keep it simple. “It should be [part of this],” he said, “but we don’t want to complicate things unduly.” Then he added that “it’s so much fun to bike anyway,” implying that people don’t need financial incentives to ride.

The hope is that parity for transit commuters will muster bipartisan agreement if it can be made deficit-neutral, as this bill is.

“If there ever was a no-brainer, this is it,” Rep. McGovern said. “This is something I think everybody agrees on. I haven’t heard anybody say it’s a bad idea. So if we all agree on it, let’s just do it.”

No Republicans appeared at the press event, but Rep. Michael Grimm of Staten Island has championed the idea in the past.

Recent attempts to revert to parity and make it permanent were thwarted by the effort to pass a broader tax reform package, rather than pick off items to address individually. That package didn’t pass, however, so now lawmakers plan to address some “tax extenders” during the lame duck period. This, Blumenauer says, should be one of them.